- refused anesthesia1
- older woman2
- goal was to master birth3
- middle and upper-middle-class4,5
- higher education level2
- husband was present6,7
- greater closeness to their spouse5
- less traditional attitude on sex roles5
- attended childbirth preparation courses5
- 14% of women were in a near-bliss8
- higher self-esteem9–11
- received an epidural12,13
- goal was to survive birth3,4
- lower class4
- 2+ weeks past due5
- feeling not in control of the birth14
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Nichols FH. The Psychological Effects of Prepared Childbirth on Single Adolescent Mothers. The Journal of Perinatal Education. 1992;1(1):41-49.
Nelson MK. Working-Class Women, Middle-Class Women, and Models of Childbirth. Social Problems. 1983;30(3):284-297. doi: 10.2307/800354
Nichols F H, Humenick S Smith. Childbirth Education: Practice, Research and Theory. Saunders; 2000.
Doering SG, Entwisle DR, Quinlan D. Modeling the Quality of Women’s Birth Experience. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1980;21(1):12. doi: 10.2307/2136690
Norr KL, Block CR, Charles A, Meyering S, Meyers E. Explaining Pain and Enjoyment in Childbirth. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1977;18(3):260. doi: 10.2307/2136353
Auerbach KG, Entwisle DR, Doering SG. The First Birth: A Family Turning Point. Contemporary Sociology. 1982;11(1):63. doi: 10.2307/2066638
MERCER RT, HACKLEY KC, BOSTROM AG. Relationship of Psychosocial and Perinatal Variables to Perception of Childbirth. N. 1983;32(4):202-207. doi: 10.1097/00006199-198307000-00004
Tanzer D. Why Natural Childbirth? New York: Schocken; 1972.
Bennett A, Hewson D, Booker E, Holliday S. Antenatal Preparation and Labor Support in Relation to Birth Outcomes. Birth. 1985;12(1):9-16. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-536x.1985.tb00924.x
Slavazza K, Mercer R, Marut J, Shnider S. Anesthesia, analgesia for vaginal childbirth. Differences in maternal perceptions. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 1985;14(4):321-329. [PubMed]
Green J, Coupland V, Kitzinger J. Expectations, experiences, and psychological outcomes of childbirth: a prospective study of 825 women. Birth. 1990;17(1):15-24. [PubMed]