Pain in Childbirth

More pain

  • A history of menstrual problems1
  • just as likely to be as satisfied as a painless birth2
  • refused anesthesia3
  • lower level of education4
  • more likely with younger mothers5
  • expects birth to be painful6

Less Pain

  • lower levels of anxiety7
  • husband was present8
  • more confident in her ability to cope9
Melzack R. The myth of painless childbirth (The John J. Bonica Lecture). Pain. 1984;19(4):321-337. doi:10.1016/0304-3959(84)90079-4
Salmon P, Miller R, Drew NC. Women’s anticipation and experience of childbirth: The independence of fulfilment, unpleasantness and pain. British Journal of Medical Psychology. 1990;63(3):255-259. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8341.1990.tb01617.x
Morgan B, Bulpitt C, Clifton P, Lewis P. ANALGESIA AND SATISFACTION IN CHILDBIRTH (THE QUEEN CHARLOTTE’S 1000 MOTHER SURVEY). The Lancet. 1982;320(8302):808-810. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(82)92691-5
Nettelbladt P, Fagerström CF, Uddenberg N. The significance of reported childbirth pain. Pain. 1979;6(3):389. doi:10.1016/0304-3959(79)90072-1
Davemport-Slack B, Boylon CH. Psychiatry Psychological correlates of childbirth pain. Pain. 1976;2(2):208. doi:10.1016/0304-3959(76)90134-2
Green J, Coupland V, Kitzinger J. Expectations, experiences, and psychological outcomes of childbirth: a prospective study of 825 women. Birth. 1990;17(1):15-24. [PubMed]
Klusman LE. Reduction of pain in childbirth by the alleviation of anxiety during pregnancy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1975;43(2):162-165. doi:10.1037/h0076468
CHANEY J. Birthing in early America. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery. 1980;25(2):5-13. doi:10.1016/0091-2182(80)90123-8
Nichols F H, Humenick S Smith. Childbirth Education: Practice, Research and Theory. Saunders; 2000.