- may overuse interventions which lacks benefits, increase cost, and poses risk1
- has increased birth rate2
- are safe3
- countries that use midwives have a decline in low-birthweight2
Enkin M, Keirse MJNC, Neilson J, et al. Effective care in pregnancy and childbirth: a synopsis. Guide to Effective Care in Pregnancy and Childbirth. June 2000:485-508. doi: 10.1093/med/9780192631732.003.0050
Midwifery and childbirth in America. Choice Reviews Online. 1998;35(07):35-3906-35-3906. doi: 10.5860/choice.35-3906
Nichols F H, Humenick S Smith. Childbirth Education: Practice, Research and Theory. Saunders; 2000.
Klaus M H, Kennell J H, Klaus P H. Mothering the Mother. Da Capo Press; 1993.